1. AMD again

    My i7 based desktop was about 8 years old and it was time to replace it. As there was no affordable aarch64 desktop class solution I have decided to go with AMD.

    Third generation of Ryzen processors brought several new features. Not that I care much of them. The important stuff is that they are faster than my Sandybridge i7. And that mainboards nowadays have m.2 slots so pcie-to-m.2 adapter cards are no longer needed.

    Processor

    Looked at performance and price of new AMD cpus and chosen Ryzen 5 3600. Fast enough and still quite cheap compared to next in line. And it has more cores/threads than my i7.

    Stock cpu cooler is worthless junk as usual. Scythe Mugen 5 will replace it soon (ordered yesterday).

    Mainboard

    Next was mainboard. First I thought about buying one with B450 chipset but then decided to bump budget and get x570 one. PCI Express 4.0 support, two m.2 slots, usb 3.2 ports etc. Should serve well for another few years.

    MSI X570-A Pro is what I went for. Nice black one, has all expansion slots I wanted. According to lspci there are 48 devices on my system (with graphics card inserted into PCIe slot and one NVME).

    mainboard partially assembled

    Memory

    Ram was next. This time new platform did not meant doubling amount of memory. Went with 32GB as two 16GB sticks so there is space for expansion if there will be any need.

    As with previous machines went with Kingston memory sticks. 3200MHz CL16 was proper balance between price and performance. Memtest86 told that they are fine (while looking funny on 34” panel).

    memtest86 on 34" LCD

    Old stuff

    Rest of my setup is from previous system. Case, nvme, ssd, Geforce 1050 Ti graphics card. My desktop always reused something from previous one. I could replace SATA cables with black ones to keep one colour scheme but this way I know which cable is which device.

    my underdesk desktop

    There were some no long needed cards. Soundblaster Live, usb 3 controller or pcie-to-m.2 adapter card went into storage box. Who knows, maybe one day will land in some other system.

    Issues

    As with any new hardware there are some issues. Stock cpu cooler is crap as always. Getting cpu busy means lot of noise. Will solve that with Scythe Mugen 5.

    Other problem is usb related. For some reason one of my hubs (Anker 4 port) does not detect hot plugging devices. Cold plugged ones (present at system boot) work fine. Something to look closer one day.

    Why again?

    My first PC machine had AMD Duron cpu. 600 MHz overclocked to 850. Then Athlon XP. Athlon 64. Athlon 64 X2. The last one probably still has a use from time to time…

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
  2. What is wrong with all those AArch64 desktops?

    I have decided to finally upgrade my eight years old x86-64 desktop. Will stay with same architecture, just change CPU vendor from Intel to AMD.

    This move was delayed few times with “who knows, maybe finally there will be some affordable AArch64 desktop systems”. But time to say the ugly truth:

    There have never been, nor will be AArch64 desktop systems

    No one makes them because no one buys them. No one buys because there is no hardware to buy.

    Or we got to the point where most of people just need a phone? And developers are expected to use remote machines for everything?

    What is desktop system?

    For me desktop system is a computer in a box somewhere under desk. With some features:

    • fast storage (like m.2 NVME),
    • option for more than 16GB of RAM,
    • onboard audio able to handle 5.1/7.1 speaker set,
    • several USB ports,
    • gigabit Ethernet,
    • some PCI Express slots for potential upgrades.

    For example my eight years old x86-64 desktop has 256GB NVME in m.2 adapter (occupying PCIe x4 slot), 32GB of memory, additional USB 3.0 controller in the other PCI Express slot (as onboard Etron EJ168 one has issues with some devices). And SoundBlaster Live audio card in PCI slot. And some 1GbE port onboard (BCM57781 this time). And some SSDs attached.

    But those Avantek systems???

    Someone can say that there are AArch64 desktop systems on market. Avantek sells them. But are those machines desktop class systems?

    NO. Those are server mainboards in tower cases. And you basically have no idea what exactly you are going to buy as there is only graphics of case. No internal photos, no back photo, no user manual to download.

    Avantek 32 core Cavium ThunderX ARM Desktop

    No onboard audio. No mention about USB ports, two PCI Express slots (x16 + x8), no 1GbE network port. No mention about m.2 slot for NVME storage.

    Ampere eMAG 64bit Arm Workstation

    Specification may change without notice.
    Product may differ from images shown.

    In other words: “we have no idea what we sell”. Features listed put system a bit closer to desktop class as there are USB ports (just two), there is 1GbE network port. Just one PCI Express port (x8).

    Avantek ThunderX2 ARM Workstation - ThunderXStation

    4U rack/tower case sounds clearly like “we know it is server but will try to sell it as a desktop”. No m.2, no audio, no mention about USB ports, no 1GbE network.

    Other vendors

    So maybe there are other vendors? Depends on how much you are on “has to be SBBR compliant” side.

    Windows on Snapdragon

    Yay! Mobile chips based laptops! Sure, they have their niche. I know people who use them as daily laptops. For normal use and for development.

    But my work requires 16GB+ of RAM and working virtualization.

    Linaro Synquacker

    Or Synquacer or Linaro DeveloperBox or whatever you call that box filled with Cortex-A53 cpu cores. Where you have to choose “working graphics or working virtualization”.

    Macchiatobin

    There are people using it as a desktop. 16GB ram is the limit. One PCIe slot. Lot of network interfaces would make it nice router probably.

    HoneyComb LX2K

    Looks interesting. Will see how it ends once get on market (preliminary version on sale now). Still requires USB audio dongle.

    Friend suggested that as CPU is on SoM card then other carrierboard can be designed. Sure, but not gonna happen probably.

    I have seen it already

    About four years ago I had that funny project: APM Mustang as a desktop (day 1, day 2, day 3). That system was kind of Frankenstein’s monster. Audio over some USB stereo-only dongle, all USB devices plugged into hubs due to only two ports on mainboard I/O panel.

    Looks like nothing changed…

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
  3. How to survive FOSDEM

    FOSDEM. Free Open Source Developers European Meeting. Every first weekend of February. In Brussels. At Université libre de Bruxelles.

    I used to say that FOSDEM is a week long conference in two days. I don’t think it is valid anymore. Should say two weeks now as last time it was something about 700 prelections. Still during two days.

    I also used to say that I can not afford not being at FOSDEM. It is probably the easiest way to meet developers from all those projects I worked with or was interested in.

    But it is not just Saturday and Sunday. On Friday evening there is a beer event which nowadays takes place at street leading to Delirium Café. Can be hard to get there due to amount of people but it is worth it. Easy way to meet far too many familiar faces. And get beer (once you managed to reach bar).

    But how to survive FOSDEM? Food. Logistics. Clothes. Logistics. Mobile app.

    Logistics

    Yes, logistics is one of key factors when it comes to this conference.

    Lectures take place in several buildings (AW, H, J, K, U). At same time. Getting from one to another takes time. You can meet people on a way and decide to discuss something rather than go for talk.

    Since few years ago there is even online navigation tool to show you which way to go from one place to another. Very handy especially if you have some mobility issues.

    FOSDEM map

    Sometimes it is worth to be in some room session before just to have a seat. Limits are taken seriously and when info on door says “room full” then do not even try to sneak in. You may find some spot and watch live streaming — just remember about good headphones to not interrupt people around you.

    If you need a quiet place to sit for a bit with your laptop then you can go to cafeteria in F building (crowdy, noisy) or sit in hacking room (quiet) in the middle of H building.

    Hotel

    Get place to sleep in city centre. “Crawling distance from Delirium Café” is perfect as this is where lot of people spend Friday’s and Saturday’s evening/night. Also several places to get various food, some grocery stores (just check opening times), pharmacies, GSM shops etc.

    Public transport

    Use whatever you normaly use (Google Maps or so) to check for it. If possible avoid bus 71 if you go on popular time and not from first stop. It gets full right on start and keeps that way until FOSDEM stop.

    On Sunday afternoon (15:30 - 19:30) there are free buses from ULB to Brussels South (Midi) railway station. Easy way to get to BRU airport. Full of people so it is good to have some alternative routes in mind.

    When it comes to tickets I usually went for 72h ticket but STIB ticket information does not list them anymore.

    Mobile application

    As long as your phone is able to run applications check Mobile schedule apps list at conference website and choose one. I use ‘FOSDEM Companion’ on my Android phone.

    Install application at least week before the event. Sync schedule and start checking which sessions to attend. Ignore fact that some will overlap. It is always better to have more listed than less — sometimes you sacrifice one due to being in wrong building or room will be full so you can take a quick look at list and go somewhere else.

    Internet access

    Once you reach FOSDEM there is no problem — conference area provides you fast wireless network access.

    If you are from one of EU countries then your GSM operator probably provides you with some data limit for “Roaming Like At Home” functionality.

    If you are from outside of EU then I suggest reading prepaid with data wiki page. GSM operators stores are in several places in city centre. Or you may even manage to find some at airport but easier to just grab one once you reach centre.

    Food

    Eat proper breakfast. Not “just a fruit and coffee” but some proper one. You may not have a time to stand in a queue for some FOSDEM food. It is not worth your time.

    If you really have to then go to bar under J, have exact change and buy a sandwich. Not best food but you may get it quick.

    Better option is to just have something with you. Get fruits, nuts, energy bars, chocolate. Some kind of quick calories.

    Or spend half an hour (or more) waiting for fast food. Still good opportunity to chat with people.

    Clothes

    FOSDEM is in February. Which means winter. So it may mean snow but it is Brussels so usually it is either nice or rainy. And you will go into building and out of building several times per day. Be prepared for it.

    Proper shoes to walk on concrete, steps but also snow, mud and grass. Winter cap, scarf, maybe even gloves. Do not have to be thick ones like for some Arctic winter. Assume few degrees above 0°C.

    Small backpack and bottle of water. Do not throw away once get empty. You are at university. You can refill your bottle at several places. Tap water is drinkable.

    Trash

    Do not put your trash in random places. Use trashcans, inform organizers and volunteers if you see full ones. Put bottles into places for bottles.

    If you can then stay after ending session and help to clean up. It is free event so help those who organized it for you.

    Swag

    FOSDEM is free event. But there is swag. You can go to organizers’ desk and donate money to keep event going. For 25€ you can get the official t-shirt.

    Several projects have own stands — mostly in K building but there are also other ones in AW (mostly related to embedded space).

    If you are stickers fan (or your new laptop still have some space on case) then go on a tour, discuss with developers, see what they present. Grab leaflets, stickers, donate some money (usually in exchange to more premium swag) etc.

    Or some funny one like this license for VLC I got in 2019:

    Physical VLC license

    Fiance(e) or family

    If your companion is not interested in FOSDEM you may sign them to free tour(s). My wife came with me to conference once, went for tour each day and enjoyed them.

    Other events

    There are several meetings taking place right before and/or after FOSDEM.

    CentOS Dojo on Friday is a nice opportunity to meet developers working on this distribution. Buildroot developers usually gather after FOSDEM.

    Several other projects are having own meetings, developer days etc. You can check list at FOSDEM Fringe page.

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
  4. My first 8K intro

    I am on demoscene since 1997 when I attended “Intel Outside 4” party in Włocławek, Poland. But I have never released anything. Until Xenium 2019 party where I presented my first 8K intro. Written for Atari 2600 game console. In some kind of BASIC language…

    The idea

    The idea for it came about year ago during Riverwash demoscene party. Most of PC 64KB intros started with some kind of progress bar as code was generating textures, instruments and other stuff requiring calculations. I joked that it would be great to make something similar for Atari 2600 VCS.

    The fun is that Atari 2600 lacks any usable memory. It has 128 bytes (bytes, not kilobytes) of RAM. The only storage is cartridge with 4KB of ROM space (expandable by bankswitching to 32KB). So there is no point in any generating at other phase than development.

    batari Basic

    During July I took a look at available options and found ‘batari Basic’. It is BASIC-like language developed in 2005-2007 by Fred X. Quimby.

    My main source of help was a forum on Atari Age. Detailed language info came from useful page called ‘Random Terrain’. There is also “Visual BB which is IDE with some tools speeding up development.

    Intro

    Thanks to Xenium organizers I have my intro recorded as video:

    thumbnail for LChMOMF8GPw video

    As you can see it has two parts. First one is playfield with one line changing every 30 frames (first version was for NTSC). Result is simple progress bar.

    Second part uses “titlescreen kernel” to display dino graphics. I used one provided by Xenium organizers (rescaled to 96x91 pixels). I used rainbow colours to have some colours on screen.

    At party

    At start of “oldchool intro” competition I told to friend sitting next to me that I hope for at least four entries. He asked “why?” so I pointed him to the screen saying “because of it”:

    My first 8K intro announcement screen

    There were six entries so I though that I am safe and will have 5th entry maximum.

    Results

    Imagine my surprise during voting results announcement next day. My intro took 3rd place!

    Award for 3rd place

    Amazing for production without any effects, without any audio. And written in BASIC-like language without using any knowledge of 6502 assembly.

    Source code

    If someone wants to see how simple it was then source code is in “my first 8k” git repo on github. Enjoy!

    What next?

    During Xenium I got lot of technical information for VCS programming. And there were questions about my next production.

    Nothing to promise here. And not for Atari VCS. It is sick platform to program due to lack of any framebuffer memory so ‘race the beam’ is in use…

    I have some ideas for Atari XL/XE

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
  5. Kolla ‘stein’ released

    On last Monday we finally released Kolla and Kolla Ansible 8.0.0 ‘stein’. Took us longer than we planned but now it is done and ready for users.

    Changes

    What got changed? Many things — details can be found in Kolla release notes and Kolla Ansible release notes.

    My work in this cycle was more reviews, less code. And lot of planning how to handle Python 3 migration for Debian/Ubuntu based images. At some point we decided that this stuff will be postponed to ‘train’ cycle. You can read more about it my previous post: Moving Kolla images to Python 3.

    Why so late

    Usually we release Kolla ‘two weeks’ after official OpenStack release. This allows us to switch to final release code of other projects, do some testing etc. This time it took us far more time :(

    Due to several issues (some core developers got more occupied with work, distributions changed dependencies in packages) it took us longer than ‘two weeks’ after official OpenStack ‘stein’ release. We added more tests for CI, handled partial Python 3 migration in Ubuntu Cloud Archive and more.Several fixes were made in ‘train’ and backported to ‘stein’.

    Now it is your turn — build, deploy, test, report ;D

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
  6. Upgraded my desktop a bit

    I have built my current desktop 7.5 years ago. Since then I did not had a need for a big hardware changes.

    Upgrades

    Machine (called ‘puchatek‘ (Winnie the Pooh in Polish)) had several upgrades in meantime:

    • got maxxed at 32GB of memory
    • 60GB Corsair SSD for / was installed 8 years ago
    • 250GB Samsung Evo for /home was added 3 years ago
    • graphic cards were changed from Radeon HD5450 via Radeon R7 240 to Nvidia GTX 1050 Ti

    Issues

    Size of system drive became an issue when I needed to build hundreds of container images. All that Kolla stuff…

    One of solutions was replacing system drive with bigger one. So I tried to use PCI Express to m.2 adapter card and realised that x8 slot stopped working.

    New mainboard

    It was a time to replace motherboard. And it is impossible to find a brand new one with 1155 socket. So I went through used ones and found nice replacement — Asrock Z68 Extreme4.

    What’s nice in it? PLX chip. It is PCI Express switch. So mainboard can have x16/x8+x8 slots, x4 slot, some x1 slots and several onboard components despite of only 24 pcie lanes available (16 from cpu, 8 from chipset).

    This way I can have graphics card working in x16 slot (it goes with x8 anyway) and NVME drive in x4 slot. If I decide to go into SLI (two graphics cards) or 10GbE I have a slot for it.

    PCI tree

    PCI tree looks a bit different now:

    • cpu

      • x16 slot with graphics card
      • x8 slot (empty)
    • chipset

      • x4 slot with nvme
      • x1 link to Marvell SATA controller (disabled in firmware setup)
      • x1 link to Etron USB 3.0 host controller
      • x1 link to Etron USB 3.0 host controller
      • x1 link to PLX switch
    • PLX switch

      • x1 slot with Renesas USB 3.0 host controller
      • x1 link to FireWire controller (disabled in firmware setup)
      • x1 link to Broadcom 1GbE controller
      • x1 slot (empty, covered by graphics card)
      • x1 link to PCIe to pci bridge

    Hacking firmware

    Latest available firmware was from 2012 and lacked any support for NVME boot. Thanks to other hackers it was not an issue. Only had to follow “how to add NVME booting into BIOS” instruction. After flashing modified firmware I could boot directly from NVME drive.

    Final result

    System boots from NVME now. 256GB of fast storage available for / and my container images. Spare PCIe x8 slot for future upgrades.

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
  7. Not enough bandwidth for new device state

    USB. Protocol which replaced random keyboard connectors, PS/2, ADB, gameport, serial and parallel ports (and many more). Sometimes expanded to “USB Sucks Badly“.

    Five years ago buying USB 3.0 hub was a task as it was not so popular thing. Nowadays I have three SuperSpeed ones. One in LG monitor (webcam, phone, Bluetooth dongle), one on desk (watch charging/adb, Yubikey, card reader, pendrives etc) and that 7 port one from five years ago with random dongles in it.

    Yesterday I replaced Gigabyte P67X-UD3-B3 mainboard with AsRock Z68 Extreme4 one. This gave me extra PCIe x4 slot where I can plug NVME storage. Built system, booted into Fedora and started using.

    At some moment I had to login into one of systems with two factor authorization. I use Yubikey for it. Pressed the button and nothing was outputed…

    Then I realized why previous configuration had that extra USB 3 controller:

    usb 3-2.2: new full-speed USB device number 12 using xhci_hcd
    usb 3-2.2: New USB device found, idVendor=1050, idProduct=0110, bcdDevice= 3.33
    usb 3-2.2: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0
    usb 3-2.2: Product: Yubikey NEO OTP
    usb 3-2.2: Manufacturer: Yubico
    usb 3-2.2: Not enough bandwidth for new device state.
    usb 3-2.2: can't set config #1, error -28
    

    Yay, USB!

    Plugged Renesas uPD720201 PCIe USB 3.0 host controller, moved all hubs to it and it works just fine:

    usb 7-3.2: new full-speed USB device number 11 using xhci_hcd
    usb 7-3.2: New USB device found, idVendor=1050, idProduct=0110, bcdDevice= 3.33
    usb 7-3.2: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0
    usb 7-3.2: Product: Yubikey NEO OTP
    usb 7-3.2: Manufacturer: Yubico
    input: Yubico Yubikey NEO OTP as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.7/0000:05:00.0/0000:06:01.0/0000:07:00.0/usb7/7-3/7-3.2/7-3.2:1.0/0003:1050:0110.0008/input/input30
    hid-generic 0003:1050:0110.0008: input,hidraw6: USB HID v1.10 Keyboard [Yubico Yubikey NEO OTP] on usb-0000:07:00.0-3.2/input0
    

    Then checked which USB 3.0 host controller is on mainboard:

    11:29 (0s) hrw@puchatek:~$ lspci |grep -i usb
    00:1a.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family USB Enhanced Host Controller #2 (rev 05)
    00:1d.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family USB Enhanced Host Controller #1 (rev 05)
    03:00.0 USB controller: Etron Technology, Inc. EJ168 USB 3.0 Host Controller (rev 01)
    04:00.0 USB controller: Etron Technology, Inc. EJ168 USB 3.0 Host Controller (rev 01)
    07:00.0 USB controller: Renesas Technology Corp. uPD720201 USB 3.0 Host Controller (rev 03)
    

    Argh, Etron EJ168 again…

    So if your mainboard has Etron EJ168 then consider adding Renesas card. Works just fine. Nevermind how slow/fast your USB devices are.

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
  8. Nine years of Linaro

    Nine years ago at 11:00 a group of developers gathered in a small room. I was one of them and did not knew anyone from a group before entering the room.

    The meeting took place in Dolce La Hulpe Hotel and Resort in a village close to Brussels, Belgium. It was on first day of UDS-M.

    This was the first meeting of NewCo developers. The organization now known as Linaro.

    I do not remember who exactly was at that meeting so will not provide a list. We introduced ourselves, got some knowledge of who is who’s boss and what we will do from now. I just told “I’ll do what my boss (pointing to Steve Langasek) orders me to” as I was tired after whole night train trip.

    For me this was the real beginning of Linaro. Not June 2010 when (at Computex) it was announced to the world. Neither 26th April 2010 — a day when I started working for Canonical as NewCo engineer.

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
  9. Good bye WordPress

    I had some kind of personal website since started using Internet in 1996. First it was set of hand edited Lynx bookmarks, then were experiments with wikis. Finally in 2005 I started using WordPress. And it was in use for those 14 years. Until now…

    WordPress is nice platform but I got tired of it. More and more plugins and themes became demo versions of commercial products. Also amount of JavaScript and CSS added to website made it harder and harder to maintain. At some point I said myself that it is enough. And started looking for alternatives.

    Pelican

    Here came Pelican — static site generator written in Python. I had few attempts to switch to it and finally managed to find some time and sorted out all issues.

    Someone my ask why Pelican? Why not Jekkyl, Gatsby, Hexo, Wintersmith or other. For me reason is simple — it is Python. Language which I already know. So in case of need I can read source code and know how to change it (already sent one change and it got merged).

    Conversion

    The good side is import from WordPress went nice. As I used Markdown most of posts required changes. Implementation in Pelican differs from old Markdown Extra + SmartyPants I had in my blog.

    Images

    Then came images. Copied whatever I had on previous website and removed all thumbnails. Then decided to go with 700px wide ones and to not link to original photos. Boring work as almost every image in every post needed change. Some entries got pictures removed (most of time due to their low resolution).

    This also shown how my blog was changing through all those years. Over 10 years ago adding 300x300px picture into blog post was normal thing. Now such graphics got either removed or replaced with 700px wide one.

    Some posts had galleries inserted instead of pictures. This took a bit more time as I was grabbing filenames from database to replace gallery with set of photos. And removed some of them during.

    Look and feel

    When I was collecting ideas for a new platform I had few ideas:

    • static generator
    • no JavaScript
    • minimal CSS
    • similar look to WordPress version

    Pelican solved first point. Handling rest was harder.

    I took a look at existing Pelican themes and tried several ones. Finally decided to make own one — like WordPress “Spacious” one.

    As a base I used “Simple” theme. Typical template with header, content, sidebar and footer. Elements put in CSS grid for most of screens and once screen width goes under 70em layout switches to “flex”. This allowed for simple responsive web design. All in ~2.5KB of CSS (plus some code for webfonts).

    Archives

    One of big changes (compared to WordPress) is a way of presenting archive posts. You can go into archives to see the list of all my blog posts like it was before. But if you go for a list of posts in a tag (like AArch64, Red Hat, Zaurus) then instead of posts with pagination you get list of posts presented in archive form.

    This should make old content easier to find.

    Comments

    As you may notice there is no way to comment posts anymore. Amount of comments was lower every year so I decided to not bother with them in new website. I could add Disqus for example but is it worth for just a few entries per year?

    To Do

    There are some things I need to take care of still. Page about my fridge magnets collection is missing, some entries may get some formatting changes or small contents edit. No big edits of old posts as they show how awful my English was in past (not that it got any better).

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
  10. The end of “Mali question”?

    For several Linaro Connect events we had sessions about state of graphics drivers on ARM platforms. I attended most of them and got a reputation of person asking problematic questions.

    But situation has changed. With Panfrost project happening. It is a Foss driver for Arm Mali Midgard graphics chipset (Bifrost support on a way). It went from “wow, a triangle” to “we can play some games or run a desktop” in quite short time.

    At BKK19 Linaro Connect we had “State of opensource drivers for mobile GPU chips” session. Freedreno, Etnaviv, vc4, v3d, Panfrost, Lima etc. What they target, what was already achieved, what are plans. Great progress across whole ARM world. And several questions from the audience. And interesting answers as well.

    thumbnail for VTgDP3yNXI0 video

    Mali then. Grant Likely from Arm told that they are looking how Panfrost is going. From company perspective both Midgard and Bifrost chips are “done, in a field” product which will not get changes. Still — engineering support goes entirely into their binary drivers as this is what their customers are using. Situation may change if those customers start asking for open drivers.

    I do not use any Arm hardware with Mali GPU anymore. But hope that at next Linaro Connect instead of asking famous “Mali question” we will rather discuss how it runs on our devices.

    Written by Marcin Juszkiewicz on
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